Diversify the Outdoor Classroom
Cardinal Direction Perennial Garden Design
Naturalizing the Outdoor Classroom: Cardinal Direction Mandala Gardens on the playground
The term polyculture refers to the practice of growing a number of crop species on the same land at the same time. The term
perennial refers to a plant species which lives for more than two years (Whitefield 2004).
The term 'Permaculture' itself, is derived from the words permanent, agriculture and culture. It comes from the principle
that a stable, sustainable culture cannot exist without an integrated relationship with a system of sustainable agriculture (Holmgren 2002, Whitefield 2004). From its conception, permaculture has had a strong emphasis on developing relationships between communities and agriculture for the purpose of creating a stable, secure, localized food system.
Why plant perennial guilds in the outdoor classroom?
Ethical gardening for a better future: Grow colonies of plants that enjoy similar habitats and which are naturally suited to your playground's growing conditions.
Edible landscaping is the practice of planting food producing plant species in place of ornamental species in the landscape, typically in residential areas. Edible landscaping around residential areas provides an ascetically pleasing landscape while producing food. This is far more than just a way to garden.
Companion plants are plants that benefit from being planted near each other. Indigenous people have practiced companion planting in their gardens for thousands of years (e.g. three sisters gardens of North America) to create multi-functional relationships among crops (Kuepper and Dodson 2001). In addition to producing food, many of these plants fix nitrogen,
aggregate nutrients, suppress undesired species, provide security through biodiversity, have physical interactions (partition resources), attract beneficial insects and wildlife, mitigate pest pressure, enhance soil structure and enhance the health
of the soil food web (Jacke and Toensmeier 2005, Kuepper and Dodson 2001).
What does this mean in practical gardening terms? Broadly speaking, it means taking a holistic and ecologically friendly approach, one that fosters soil, plant, animal and human health as well as biodiversity and garden wildlife by taking nature as its role model.
'The ethics earth care, people care and fair share form the foundation for permaculture design and are also found in most traditional societies. Ethics are culturally evolved mechanisms that regulate self-interest, giving us a better understanding of good and bad outcomes. The greater the power of humans, the more critical ethics become for long-term cultural and biological survival. Permaculture ethics are distilled from research into community ethics, learning from cultures that have existed in relative balance with their environment for much longer than more recent civilizations. This does not mean that we should ignore the great teachings of modern times, but in the transition to a sustainable future, we need to consider values and concepts outside the current social norm.'(reference: